How to install xfs and create xfs file system on Debian/Ubuntu Linux

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I recently switched to a Ubuntu/Debian Linux server from a CentOS/RHEL 7.x. How do I install mkfs.xfs command on a Debian/Ubuntu Linux server? How do I create and manage file XFS file system on a Ubuntu or Debian Linux LTS server?

It would have been nice to discuss having root on XFS, and if there are any gotchas.

That can be done at time of installation. By default RHEL/CentOS uses XFS. However, after installation you cannot change FS without formatting the disk/lvm/raid.