How to get octal file permissions on Linux/Unix command line

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I am a new Linux command line user. How do I find file permissions in octal format such as 0644 from the bash command line running on a Linux or Unix operating systems? How can I get the octal permissions for a file? How do I get octal file permissions on Linux/Unix?

Very simple way is using stat command
see manual page of stat command
there are a lot of other ways and you can download proper scripts from internet

also you can define alias like below
alias ostat='stat -c %a ’
ostat /etc/passwd
output will be similar