Is it possible to upgrade or update Linux kernel only using command line options? What I mean is I need Fedora Linux kernel updates but avoid other packages. Possible or not?
Yes, you can do this, by patching your Kernel, but only patching the security and other stuff which is providing by your Linux OS - your current Kernel release! If you want to remove the old Kernel and building a new one, you should remove the old Kernel dev tools and headers. Then you should install the new one. WARNING If you do this you will be stoped from your mirrors which they support your package manager and you will never install the new packages and patches for your current software!
How to: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/v4.10/process/applying-patches.html